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宫颈炎的概述

作者:管理员        来源:99子宫网        发布日期:2010-11-14        访问量:9355

       宫颈炎是育龄妇女的常见病,有急性和慢性两种。急性宫颈炎常与急性子宫内膜炎或急性阴道炎同时存在,但以慢性宫颈炎多见。慢性宫颈炎是妇女最常见的一种疾病,患病率为35.09%,居妇科各类疾病的首位,已婚经产妇中约60.0%曾患有慢性宫颈炎。

       

                                  女性内外生殖器

        一、发病原因

       1、机械性刺激或损伤
       宫颈炎的发生与性生活有关系,自然或人工流产、诊断性刮宫以及分娩都可造成子宫颈损伤而导致炎症,成年女性应注意避孕,避免或减少人工流产手术,注意产后卫生,避免产后感染。
       2、    病原体感染
       由于分娩、流产或手术损伤宫颈后发生。
       病原体主要为:
       1)性传播疾病病原体:淋病奈瑟菌及支原体衣原体。
       2)内源性病原体:葡萄球菌、链球菌、大肠杆菌和厌氧菌等。
       3)其他:原虫中有滴虫和阿米巴。特殊情况下为化学物质和放射线所引起。
       3、化学物质刺激
       用某种酸性或碱性溶液冲洗阴道,或将栓剂放入阴道,都可引起宫颈炎。
      

       二、症状
       1、急性宫颈炎:白带增多,呈脓性,伴腰痛,下腹不适。
       2、慢性宫颈炎:白带多,呈乳白色,粘液状或白带中夹有血丝,或性交出血,伴外阴瘙痒,腰骶部疼痛,经期加重。
        3、体征:急性宫颈炎,妇科检查,宫颈充血,水肿,有触痛;慢性宫颈炎,妇科检查,宫颈不同程度的糜烂,肥大或有息肉。
       

         三、分类及图片
         1、宫颈糜烂
         这是最常见的一种慢性宫颈炎。表现为宫颈外口处的宫颈阴道部分外观呈细颗粒状的红色区。

        

              2、宫颈肥大
              由于慢性炎症的长期刺激,子宫颈充血、水肿,腺体和间质增生,而使宫颈呈不同程度的肥大

             

             3、宫颈息肉
             在慢性炎症的长期刺激下,宫颈管粘膜局部增生,由于子宫具有排异作用,使增生的粘膜逐渐突出于宫颈口,形成息肉

 

             

              4、宫颈腺体囊肿
              宫颈腺囊肿又叫宫颈纳氏囊肿,宫颈纳氏囊肿(可称“纳囊”)。这是一种突出于宫颈表面的青白色小

囊泡

               

                5、宫颈内膜炎
           即宫颈管炎。炎症局限于宫颈管粘膜及其下的组织,临床见宫颈阴道部光滑,但宫颈口充血或有脓性分泌物堵塞。
              

           二、预防
          预防宫颈炎注意以下5点:
         1、注意外阴及阴道清洁。在分娩、流产、宫颈物理治疗术后应预防感染,应避免性生活。
         2、避免不洁性生活。不洁性生活易带入各种病原体,而诱发宫颈炎甚至是宫颈癌。
         3、避免过早、过多、过频的生育和流产。分娩和流产都会造成宫颈的损伤,从而为细菌的侵入提供了机会。
         4、不过早开始性生活是有效预防宫颈炎的关键。青春期宫颈的鳞状上皮尚未发育成熟,性生活容易使鳞状细胞脱落而造成宫颈炎。
         5、定期妇科检查,以便及时发现宫颈炎症,及时治疗。

 

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