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子宫肌瘤的发病原因

作者:admin        来源:99子宫网        发布日期:2010-07-25        访问量:35247
导读:子宫肌瘤是个多发病,我们应以平静的心态面对它。可是什么原因会引起子宫肌瘤呢?什么样的人群又容易患子宫肌瘤呢?

      子宫肌瘤的发病是多种因素相互作用的结果,但这些因素是否能促进雌、孕激素诱发子宫肌瘤的发生,目前仍然没有完整正确的定论。尽管如此,近年来流行病学的调查发现下面这些因素可能是子宫肌瘤发病的高危因素。

      一、子宫肌瘤发病的高危因素
      (一)月经初潮的年龄和分娩次数
      研究发现,月经初潮年龄越早,则子宫肌瘤的发病率越高。
      <12岁月经初潮的女性,其子宫肌瘤的发病率显著高于>16岁月经初潮的女性。
      近年研究发现,有生育能力妇女子宫肌瘤的发病率显著低于不孕的妇女,并且随着妊娠次数的增加,子宫肌瘤的发病率逐渐下降,其原因可能为妊娠可减少雌激素作用的时间。
      (二)年龄
      晚生育期年龄常被认为是子宫肌瘤发病的高危年龄。
      这种年龄常为40岁左右接近围绝经期,在此期间可能存在卵巢排卵功能障碍,同时也可能是妇女在此期间已有20~30年雌、孕激素累积作用的结果。
      (三)肥胖
      近年来研究发现,肥胖与子宫肌瘤的发病率呈正相关。且妇女每增加10kg的体重可增加21%患子宫肌瘤的风险,或每增加1单位体重指数可增加6%患子宫肌瘤的风险。
      (四)饮食
      尽管饮食与子宫肌瘤发病的相关性常不引起人们重视,但有研究报道,主食为动物食物的妇女,其子宫肌瘤的发病率显著高于主食为绿色蔬菜的妇女。
      另外,多食维生素特别是维生素也可降低子宫肌瘤的发病率。
      (五)种族差异
      研究表明,美国黑人患子宫肌瘤的发病率是白人的3.4倍。而东方人子宫肌瘤的发病率又低于西方人。
      进一步研究发现,美国黑人体内有高水平的雌酮、雌二醇和游离雌二醇,从而可能促进子宫肌瘤的发生。
      (六)吸烟
      吸烟对人体健康的危害为人们所共知。但研究发现,吸烟能降低子宫肌瘤的发病率。
      一般认为,目前仍吸烟的妇女,其子宫肌瘤的发病率比非吸烟的妇女可减少50%。且吸烟的数量与子宫肌瘤的发病率呈负相关。


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